Batteries are an essential part of residential scale solar systems and certain commercial scale solar applications like Telecom Towers, off-grid Resorts, etc. Since solar power is only available during the day time and also the consumption and demand of energy is not the same in case of solar power we need to store the energy produced by solar for later usage.
Solar batteries are also needed where continuous power supply from the grid is a big challenge and especially for resorts and applications that do not connect to any electricity networks.
What are the types of solar batteries available in India ?
Batteries form an important part of the solar power system in India. They help in storage and distribution on power when sun is not available. They stabilize and make 24×7 power supply possible for small residential and commercial applications.
There are broadly four types of solar batteries
- Lead acid batteries
- Lithium Ion Batteries
- Nickel Cadmium batteries
- Flow batteries
Lead Acid Solar Batteries
Lead acid batteries are the most common type of solar batteries used and also the most mature of the battery technology available in the market today. These are deep cycle batteries meaning they can store energy for a longer time even though unused.
- Advantages of using a lead acid solar battery
- SInce this technology has been in the market for ages, this is also the cheapest source of batteries out there.
- They have a proven disposal system and can be recycled easily causing lesser damage to the environment, If your purpose of installing solar power is to preserve nature.
- Disadvantages of using lead acid solar batteries
- The lead acid batteries needs regular maintenance and also has chance of battery leakage and hence needs more care
- These batteries has low depth of discharge which means these batteries needs to be recharged often and results in lower life around 4-6 years
Lithium Ion Solar batteries
The growth of Lithium ion batteries gained momentum with the thrust of Electric Vehicles in India.
Advantages of Lithium Ion solar battery
- Lithium Ion Batteries have high energy density, which means they can deliver more power output within a smaller area and they are compact in nature.
- Lithium ion batteries have high depth of discharge which means they have deliver more energy and have a longer life span.
Disadvantages of lithium ion batteries
- Lithium Ion batteries are expensive as compared to the lead acid solar batteries available in the market
- Lithium ion batteries have chances of catching fire due to a phenomenon called thermal runaway at high temperatures and hence demands high care and is not apt if the atmospheric temperatures are high.
NIckel Cadmium solar Batteries
The Nickel cadmium batteries are extensively used in the airline industry and are extremely toxic in nature. These batteries has the highest energy density and are useful in places where space is a major constraint. Since they are toxic in nature, it is banned in many countries. This is the most expensive battery systems in the world.
Flow solar Batteries
A comparatively new technology, the flow solar batteries have 100% depth of discharge and hence utilizes 100% of energy during each discharge. These batteries are water based and energy storage and discharge happens due to the flow of water from one chamber to the other. They occupy high space and are not apt for residential purposes. It is fairly new new technology and does not have a proven track record yet.
How much backup can a solar battery give?
The list of appliance commonly used at home and the energy consumed by them
|Appliances||Power(watts)||Time used (hours)||Quantity||Total Energy Consumed (kWh)|
|LED TV 32 inch||60||4||1||0.24|
|Washing Machine (1 Ton)||500||2||1||1|
|Mixer / Blender|
|Daily Energy Consumption||1560Watts||9.76kWh|
An average home in India needs a minimum of 10kWH of energy daly and imagine if all the appliances run at the same time we need a total of 1560 Watts or 1.6kW of Power. This is the demand side
Now, if a battery has the following ratings
|Battery AH||Battery Voltage||Battery Energy VAH||Battery efficiency||Energy discharged|
Based on the above table, a 120AH, 12V battery can discharge around 1kWH of energy and a 150AH, 12V battery can store around 1.2kWh of energy. SInce we will not operate all the appliances during a power cut, we can operate 2 ceiling fans for 8 hours straight. If you need more appliances to operate using backup power we need to add more batteries accordingly. Please note that in most cases you cannot have a single battery as the input of the battery and the output of the inverter should be synchronized to meet the voltage and current requirements.
How much time do I need to charge my battery ?
A normal solar battery has slow charging and fast discharging times. Which means it would roughly take 8-10 hours for the batteries to fully charge and it can discharge 70% of its capacity based on the operating load (which is the appliances you are connecting )
What are the warranties for a solar Battery?
The warranties of solar batteries depends on your location in India. It mostly depends on if your area has constant power cuts and hence your usage is going to be more and hence life will be lesser. But most battery manufacturers in India will give you a battery warranty of 3-5 years.
What is the cost of a 150AH solar battery ?
A cost of 150AH, 12 V solar battery in India ranges from 12,000rs to 15,000 Rs.
What are the dimensions of a battery
A 150 AH, 12V solar battery weighs around 60kgs and has a width of 20cms, height of 45-50cms and a depth of 50-52 cms
What is the life of a solar battery ?
The average life of a solar battery is 5-10 years. It mostly depends on the regular maintenance and also the number of charging and discharging cycles and operating temperatures.
What maintenance do I need to do for a solar battery ?
Some solar batteries need a distilled water top up based on the water level indicator in the battery. Battery needs to be stored in a cool and dry place away from water and high temperatures. Also keep batteries away from children
Top 7 Solar Battery companies in India.
There are many specialized solar battery manufacturers in India. Here are the list of top solar manufacturers in India